Inflammation can occur when the person has been exposed to long-standing stress, resulting in anxiety, hyperactivity and malabsorption. It can occur as a result of taking pharmaceutical medications, particularly antibiotics, and also as a result of recreational drugs and excessive alcohol.
Some viruses can trigger inflammatory reactions, the most common being Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). These appear to have an affinity for several digestive organs including the liver, pancreas and gall bladder, and can extend their effects to other glands, such as kidneys, adrenals and thyroid. They can also affect the central nervous system including the brain in some cases.